Our universe is a collection of trading data from institutional
investors. It covers over 24 million transactions, $7.2 trillion of principal
and 375 billion shares of trading from 1500 investment managers and 2000
brokers worldwide. Elkins/McSherry uses the universe data to assess
institutional trading for commissions, fees and market impact costs in 47
Asset Owners Should Measure Turnover Rates in Conjunction
with Trading Costs In order to fully understand and manage portfolio management costs, turnover rates should be evaluated based
on the actual implicit1 and explicit2 costs associated with each trade.
High Frequency Trading Volumes Continue to Increase
Throughout the World High Frequency Trading (HFT) can be defined as any automated trading strategy
where investment decisions are driven by quantitative models at speeds faster
than those possible using human decision making.